Abbreviations
adj., "adjective"
adv., "adverb"
art., "article"
(B), (preceding word causes Breathed Mutation)
(b), (following word undergoes Breathed Mutation where it can)
cnj., "conjunction"
f., "feminine noun"
(H), (preceding word causes Hard Mutation)
(h), (following word undergoes Hard Mutation where it can)
imp., "imperative"
interrog., "Interrogative" 
lit., "literally"
m., "masculine noun"
num., "numeral"
num.m., "numeral (used before a masculine noun)" 
num.f., "numeral (used before a masculine noun)" 
phr., "phrase"
prn., "pronoun"
prog., "progressive form" 
prp., "preposition"
prp.prn., "prepositional pronoun"
prt., "particle"
(S), (preceding word causes Soft Mutation) 
(s), (following word undergoes Soft Mutation where it can)
sfx., "suffix"
vbn., "verbal noun"

Descans Onan - Lesson One


Gerva Onan - Vocabulary One:
   
da adj., good.
descans m., lesson; unit; teaching.
desky vbn., to learn/-ing.
dhe prp., to.
dhe whei prp.prn. + prn., to you (stressed/emphatic).
dhewgh prp.prn., to you.
Duw bo genowgh! phr., goodbye!; God be with you!. 
ewêdh adv., also; too. 
Kernôwek m., Cornish language. 
lowena f., joy. 
lowena dhewgh! phr., hello to you!. 
o (H)  prt., (continuous particle). 
onan num., one (used on its own).
poynt a skians phr., a word of advice.
pur (S) adv., very.
pur dha phr., very good.
thera vy phr., I am (there).
thero whei phr., you are (there). 
vy prn. I, me.
whei prn., you (to one person when being polite;
                          to more than one person). 
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys:
Patterns introduced: 

Thera vy o(H) (h)... . "I am ...-ing."/"I ... ."
(lit.: P-there-am I P(H) (h)...-ing)

Thero whei o(H) (h)... . "You are ...-ing."/"You ... ."
(lit.: P-there-are-you you P(H) (h)...-ing)

E.g.:
Thera vy o(H) (h)tesky Kernôwek. "I am learning Cornish."/"I learn Cornish." 
Thero whei o(H) (h)tesky Kernôwek. "You are learning Cornish."/"You learn Cornish."

Descans Dew - Lesson Two


Gerva Dew - Vocabulary Two:
   
.    
arta adv., again; back.  
clappya vbn., speak/-ing.  
dew num.m., two.  
en tei! adv., sure!; indeed!; why certainly!.  
ena adv., there.  
era vy? phr., am I?.  
ero whei? phr., are you?.  
fatla phr., how’s; how goes; how does it go.   
geno whei prp.prn. + prn., with you (emphatic).  
genowgh prp.prn., with you.  
Godhalek m., Irish language.  
gras m., grace; thanks; gratitude; thanksgiving.  
ha cnj., and.   
lowr adj., enough.  
meur adj., much; great; grand.  
meur ras dhe whei! phr., thank you.  
òbma adv., here.  
sowêth adv., alas; unfortunately; regrettably.  
Sowsnek m., English language.  
wolcom adj., welcome.
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys:
Patterns introduced: 

Era vy o(H) (h)... ? "Am I ...-ing?"/"I ... ?"
(lit.: there-am I P(H) (h)...-ing?)

Ero whei o(H) (h)... ? "Are you ...-ing?"/"You ... ?"
(lit.: there-are-you you P(H) (h)...-ing?)

E.g.:
Era vy o(H) (h)tesky Kernôwek? "Am I learning Cornish?"/"Do I learn Cornish?" 
Ero whei o(H) (h)tesky Kernôwek? "Are you learning Cornish?"/"Do you learn Cornish?"

Descans Trei - Lesson Three


Gerva trei - Vocabulary Three:
 
a’n our phr., bye; goodbye; bye-bye; see you.
carr m., car.
còsca vbn., sleep/-ing.  
debry vbn., eat/-ing.
dhe (S) prp., to.
ea int., yes; yeah.
eram 1sg.pres.loc., I am.  
erowgh 2pl.pres.loc., you are; you’re.
eva vbn., drink/-ing.
gweles vbn., see/-ing.  
gwil vbn., do/-ing.
leverel vbn., say/-ing.  
 int., no.  
nag eram 1sg.pres.loc.neg., I am not.  
nag ero whei phr., you are not.  
nag erowgh phr., you are not.  
neppeth prn., something.  
o kil prog., doing.  
pandr’ interrog.prn., what (followed by forms of boas ‘be/being’).
pandra interrog.prn., what.  
perna vbn., buy/-ing.
trei num.m., three.  
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys:
Patterns introduced: 

Fatla genowgh? “How are you?”
(lit.: how-goes with-you?)

Ea, eram. “Yes, I am.”
(lit.: yes, there-am)

Nâ, nag eram. “No, I’m not.”
(lit.: no, not there-am)

Pandr’ero whei o(H) (h)... ? “What are you (+ verb)-ing?”
(lit.: what’there-are-you you P(H) (h)...-ing?)

Descans Pajar - Lesson Four


Gerva pajar - Vocabulary Four:

benyn f., woman; a woman.
cath f., cat; a cat.
chei adv., in; inside; at home; in the house.  
chei m., house.
den m., man; a man.
Durda dhe whei! phr., Good day to you!.
en prp., in.
flogh m., child; a child.   
ha cnj., and.
kei m., dog; a dog.
pajar num.m., four.
spladn adj., brilliant; glowing; bright; great.  
terebo nessa! phr., until next time!; see you next time!.
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys:
Patterns introduced: 
   
Thera vy o(H) (h)... dhe(S) (s)... neppeth. 
“I am (verb)-ing to (verb) something” or: “I (verb) to (verb) something.”
 
Thero whei o(H) (h)... dhe(S) (s)... neppeth. 
“You are (verb)-ing to (verb) something.” or: “You (verb) to (verb) something.”
 
E.g.:
Thera vy o(H) (h)tesky dhe(S) leverel Kernôwek. 
“I’m learning to speak Cornish.” or: “I learn to speak Cornish.”
 
Thero whei o(H) (h)tesky dhe(S) leverel Kernôwek.
“You’re learning to speak Cornish.” or: “You learn to speak Cornish.”

Descans Whegh - Lesson Six


Gerva whegh - Vocabulary Six:
 
an art., the (causes soft mutation of a feminine noun).
an gewer phr., the weather.
ew 3sg.pres.descr., is.
fatel (S) interrog.adv., how.
gleb adj., wet.
hager adj., ugly, bad.
hedhyw adv., today.
kewer f., weather.
onan num., one.
dew (S) num.m., two.
trei (B) num.m., three.
pajar num.m., four.
pemp num., five.
segh adj., dry.
teg adj., nice; pretty; beautiful; handsome. 
tòbm adj., warm; hot.
thew ptl. + 3sg.pres.descr., is.
whegh num., six.
yeyn adj., cold.  
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys:
Patterns introduced: 
   
Thew + (adjective). “It’s (adjective).”
(lit.: P-is-s/he (adjective).)
 
E.g.:
Thew da. “It’s good.”
Thew broas. “It’s big.”
 
Adjective emphasised:
(adjective) + ew. “It’s (adjective)”
(lit.: (adjective is-s/he))
 
E.g.:
Da ew. “It’s good.”
Broas ew. “It’s big.”
 
Question:
Ew + (adjective)? “Is it (adjective)?”
(lit.: is-s/he (adjective)?)
 
E.g.:
Ew da? “Is it good?”
Ew broas? “Is it big?”
 
Negation:
Nag ew + (adjective). “It isn’t (adjective).”
(lit.: not is-s/he (adjective).)

Descans Seyth - Lesson Seven

Gerva seyth - Vocabulary seven:

bara m., bread.
bian adj., small; little.
bo cnj., or.
broas adj., big; large; great; grand.
coth adj., old.
doas vbn., come/-ing.
seyth num., seven.
eth num., eight.
naw num., nine.
deg num., ten.
ev, e prn., he.
va sfx.., he.
gwil whel vb.phr., do work/doing work.
hansel m., brunch; late breakfast; early lunch.
hei prn., she.
pel droos f., football.
pel f., ball.
skith, sqwith adj., tired.
te m., tea.
tre adv., home.
tre f., village, town.
troos m., foot.
whel m., work.
yònk adj., young.

Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys:
Patterns introduced: 

Forms of boas “to be/being” associated with place:
Thera vy òbma. “I’m here.”
Thero whei òbma. “You’re here.”
Ma va òbma. “He’s here.”
Ma hei òbma. “She’s here.”

Forms of boas “to be/being” associated with describing things:
Tho vy skith. “I’m tired.”
Tho whei skith. “You are tired.”
Thew e skith. “He’s tired.”
Thew hei skith. “She’s tired.”

Definite article: an “the”
No change in a masculine noun following an “the”: an den “the man”
Soft mutation of a feminine noun following an “the”: an venyn “the woman” (< benyn)

Descans Eth - Lesson Eight


Gerva eth - Vocabulary eight:
   
ma 3sg.pres.loc., is; there is; he is; she is.

Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys:
Patterns introduced: 
   
   
Forms of boas “to be/being” associated with describing things:

Positive:
Tho vy skith. “I’m tired.”
Tho whei skith. “You’re tired.”

                           With the adjective emphasised:
                     Skith o vy. “I’m tired.”
                     Skith o whei. “You’re tired.”


Negative:
Nag o vy skith. “I’m not tired.”
Nag o whei skith. “You’re not tired.”

Question:
O vy skith? “Am I tired?”
O whei skith? “Are you tired?” 

Descans Naw - Lesson Nine


Gerva naw - Vocabulary nine:
   
an art., the.
maw m., boy.
mowes f., girl.
dowr m., water.
leth m., milk.
cor m., beer.
gwin m., wine.  
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys:
Patterns introduced: 
   
More present tense forms: 
Ma ev o(H) ... . “He’s (verb)-ing.” or: “He (verb)s.”
Ma hei o(H) ... . “She’s (verb)-ing.” or: “She (verb)s.”

E.g.: 
Ma ev o(H) (h)tesky Kernôwek. “He’s learning Cornish.” or: “He learns Cornish.”
Ma hei o(H) (h)tesky Kernôwek. “She’s learning Cornish.” or: “She learns Cornish. 

Descans Deg - Lesson Ten

Gerva deg - Vocabulary ten:
   
   
üjy 3sg.pres. (question & negative), is.
üjy va 3sg.m.pres. (question & negative), is he.
üjy hei 3sg.f.pres. (question & negative), is she.

Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys:
Patterns introduced: 

More present tense forms:
Asking questions:
Üjy va o(H) (h)... ? “Is he (verb-)ing?” or: “Does he (verb)?”
Üjy hei o(H) (h)... ? “Is she (verb-)ing?” or: “Does she (verb)?”

E.g.:
Üjy va o tesky Kernôwek? “Is he learning Cornish?” or: “Does he learn Cornish?”
Üjy hei o tesky Kernôwek? “Is she learning Cornish?” or: “Does she learn Cornish?”


Negation:
Nag üjy va o(H) (h)... . “He isn’t (verb-)ing.” or: “He doesn’t (verb).”
Nag üjy hei o(H) (h)... . “She isn’t (verb-)ing.” or: “She doesn’t (verb).”

E.g.:
Nag üjy va o tesky Kernôwek. “He isn’t learning Cornish.” or: “He doesn’t learn Cornish.”
Nag üjy hei o tesky Kernôwek. “She isn’t learning Cornish.” or: “She doesn’t learn Cornish.” 

Descans Üdnek - Lesson Eleven

Gerva üdnek - Vocabulary eleven:
 
moas vbn., go/-ing.
clowes vbn., hear/-ing.
cawas vbn., find/-ing, get/-ting, have/-ing.
gosôwes vbn., listen/-ing.
radyô m., radio.
nowodhow pl., news.

Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys:
Patterns introduced: 
   
To like.

Positive statement:                                                                       Emphatic:
Thew da genam. “I like.”                                                         Da ew genam. “I like.”
Thew da genowgh. “You like.”                                             Da ew genowgh. “You like.”

E.g.:
Thew da genowgh an chei. “You like the house.”     Da ew genowgh an chei? “You like the         
                                                                                                                                                                           house.”
Thew da genam desky Kernôwek. “I like learning  Da ew genam desky Kernôwek? “I like
                                                                                 Cornish.”                                                                       learning Cornish.”
                                                
Question:
Ew da genam? “Do I like?”
Ew da genowgh? “Do you like?”

E.g.:
Ew da genam an chei? “Do I like the house?”
Ew da genowgh desky Kernôwek? “Do you like learning Cornish?”

Descans Dewdhek - Lesson Twelve


Gerva dewedhek - Vocabulary twelve:

gofyn vbn., ask/-ing.
qwestyon m., question.
buss m., bus.
kyttrin m., bus, coach.
kerdhes vbn., walk/-ing.
tavern m., pub; inn.
naneyl phr., neither.
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys:
Patterns introduced: 
   
To like.
Negative statement:
Nag ew da genam. “I don’t like.”
Nag ew da genowgh. “You don’t like.”

E.g.:
Nag ew da genam an chei. “I don’t like the house.”
Nag ew da genowgh desky Kernôwek. “I don’t like learning Cornish.”

Saying “Yes” and “No”:
Ea, ew. “Yes, it is.”
Nâ, nag ew. “No, it isn’t.”

Prepositional pronouns:
Simple                                                                   Emphatic
genam “with me”                                            gena vy “with me”
genowgh “with you”                                      geno whei “with you”

dhebm “to me”                                                dhe vy “to me”
dhewgh “to you”                                             dhe whei “to you”

Descans Terdhek - Lesson Thirteen


Gerva terdhek - Vocabulary thirteen:

cales adj., hard, difficult.
adj., black.
gortheby vbn. answer/answering.
gwydn adj., white.
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys:
Patterns introduced: 
   
   
masculine noun + adjective
kei gwydn “a white dog”
den teg “a handsome man”
maw bian “a little boy”

feminine noun + adjective in soft mutation
cath wydn “a white cat”
benyn deg “a pretty woman”
mowes vian “a little girl”

Descans Peswardhek - Lesson Fourteen


Gerva peswardhek - Vocabulary fourteen:

convedhes vbn., understand/-ing.
hebma dem.prn., this, this one.
hedna dem.prn., that, that one.
nowydh adj., new, modern.
​​

Descansow Pemthek ha Whetek  
-
Lessons Fifteen and Sixteen


Gerva descansow pemthek ha whetek - Vocabulary fifteen and sixteen:

dalleth, dalla vbn., begin/-ing; start/-ing.
scrifa vbn., write/-ing.
jei prn., they.
môns 3pl.pres.loc., they are.
môn’jei 3pl.pres.loc.emph., they are.
lether m., letter.
lever m., book.
lôwen adj., happy.
   
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys Patterns introduced:
 
More present-tense forms:
Positive statement (locative and continuous form):
Môn’jei o(H) (h)... . “They’re (verb)-ing.” or: “They (verb).”
 
          E.g.:
        Môn’jei o(H) (h)tesky Kernôwek. “They’re learning Cornish.” or: “They learn Cornish.”
 
Question (locative and continuous form):
Üjan’jei o(H) (h)... ? “Are they (verb)-ing?” or: “Do they (verb)?”
 
          E.g.:
        Üjan’jei o(H) (h)tesky Kernôwek? “Are they learning Cornish?” or: “Do they learn
                                                                                                                                                        Cornish?”
 
Negative Statement (locative and continuous form):
Nag üjan’jei o(H) (h)... . “They aren’t (verb)-ing.” or: “They don’t (verb).”
 
          E.g.:
        Nag üjan’jei o(H) (h)tesky Kernôwek. “They aren’t learning Cornish.” or: “They don’t learn
                                                                                                                                                                      Cornish?”

Descans Seytek  
-
Lesson Seventeen


Gerva seytek - Vocabulary seventeen:
   
üdn num., one (used with a noun).
diw num.f., two (used with feminine nouns).
an dhew phr., the two (with masculine nouns).
an dhiw phr., the two (with feminine nouns).
êns 3pl.pres.descr., they are.
ên’jei 3pl.pres.descr.emph., they are.
lôwen adj., happy, glad.
    

   
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys Patterns introduced:
 
Saying “yes” and “No”:
Ea, üjans. “Yes, they are.”
Nâ, nag üjans. “No, they’re not.”

Numbers:
üdn “one” + noun
            -) no change in a following masculine noun.
            -) soft mutation of feminine nouns, where possible.

dew “two” + (masculine) noun
            -) causes soft mutation.
            -) used before masculine nouns.

diw “two” + (feminine) noun
            -) causes soft mutation.
            -) used before feminine nouns.

More present-tense forms of “be/-ing”:

When describing things:
êns “they are”
ên’jei “they are”

            E.g.:
            Thên’jei lôwen. “They’re happy.” (neutral)
            Lôwen êns. “They’re happy.” (“happy” stressed)
            Jei ew lôwen. “They’re happy.” (“they” stressed)
            Nag êns lôwen. “They aren’t happy.” (neutral)
            Nag ên’jei lôwen. “They aren’t happy.” (“they” stressed)
            Ên’jei lôwen? “Are they happy?”
            Ea, êns. “Yes, they are.”
            Nâ, nag êns. “No, they aren’t.”    
    

Descansow Etek, Nownjek, Ügens ha Onan warn Ügens  
-
Lessons Eighteen, Nineteen, Twenty and Twenty One


Gerva Vocabulary:
   
   
barthek adj., wonderful, marvellous, great.
brav adj., fine.
bes cnj., but.
cabm adj., wrong, crooked, bent.
clâv adj., ill, sick.
còmpes adj., right, correct, true, straight.
crev adj., strong.
esta 2sg.pres.loc., you are (one person only), thou art.
fals adj., false.
gwadn adj., weak.
yagh adj., healthy, well.

   
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys Patterns introduced:
    
These lessons mostly contain exercises that train telling the difference between the descriptive forms and locative forms.

Numbers:
trei(B) (b)...  “three” + (masculine) noun
            -) used before a masculine noun.
            -) causes breathed mutation in the following word, where possible.

teyr(B) (b)... “three” + (feminine) noun
            -) used before a feminine noun.
            -) causes breathed mutation in the following word, where possible.

Descans Dew warn Ügens  
-
Lesson Twenty Two


Gerva Vocabulary:
   
chy prn., you (sg./fam.); thou.
codha dhe’n dor vb.phr., fall/-ing down.
codha vb., fall/-ing.
dhe’n dor phr., down; to the ground.
perthy co vb.phr., remember.
rei vb., give/giving.
redya vb., read/-ing.


   
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys Patterns introduced:

Positive statement:
Thesta o(H) (h)...  .
“You(sg.) are (verb)-ing.” or: “You(sg.) (verb).”

                    E.g.:
                    Thesta o(H) (h)tesky Kernôwek. 
                     “You(sg.) are learning Cornish.” or: “You(sg.) learn Cornish.”


Question:
Esta o(H) (h)... .
“Are you(sg.) (verb)-ing? or: “Do you(sg.) (verb)?”

            E.g.:
            Esta o(H) (h)tesky Kernôwek?
            “Are you(sg.) learning Cornish?” or: “Do you(sg.) learn Cornish?”


Negative statement:
Nag esta o(H) (h)... .
“You(sg.) aren’t (verb)-ing.” or: “You(sg.) don’t (verb).”

            E.g.:
            Nag esta o(H) (h)tesky Kernôwek.
            “You(sg.) aren’t learning Cornish.” or: “You(sg.) don’t learn Cornish.”


Saying “yes”:
Ea, esta. “Yes, you(sg.) are.”


Saying “no”:
Nâ, nag esta. “Yes, you(sg.) are.”

    

Descans Trei warn Ügens  
-
Lesson Twenty Three


Gerva Vocabulary:
 
gena nei prp.prn., with us (stressed).
genen prp.prn., with us.
loos adj., grey.
Nag o nei ... phr., we’re not, we aren’t.
O nei ...? phr., are we...?.
tewl adj., dark.
tho nei phr., we are (neutral).
    


   
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys Patterns introduced:

   
Positive statement:

       Neutral:
       Tho nei ... . “We are (adjective).”
       Tho whei ... . “You are (adjective).”

                        E.g.:
                        Tho nei bian. “We’re small.”
                        Tho whei bian. “You’re small.”

       Adjective stressed:
       ... o nei. “We are (adjective).”
       ... o whei. “You are (adjective).”

                        E.g.:
                        Bian o nei. “We’re small.”
                        Bian o whei. “You’re small.”

       Pronoun stressed:
       Nei ew ... . “We are small.”
       Whei ew ... . “You are small.”

                        E.g.:
                        Nei ew bian. “We are small.”
                        Whei ew bian. “You are small.”


Question:
O nei ... ? “Are we (adjective)?”
O whei ...? “Are you (adjective)?”

                        E.g.:
                       O nei bian? “Are we small?”
                       O whei bian? “Are you small?”


Negative statement:
Nag o nei ... . “We aren’t (adjective).”
Nag o whei ... . “You aren’t (adjective).”

                        E.g.:
                        Nag o nei bian. “We aren’t small.”
                        Nag o whei bian. “You aren’t small.”


Saying “yes”:
Ea, on. “Yes, we are.”
Ea, owgh. “Yes, you are.”

Saying “no”:
Nâ, nag on. “No, we aren’t.”
Nâ, nag owgh. “No, you aren’t.”
    
    

Descans Pajar warn Ügens  
-
Lesson Twenty Four


Gerva Vocabulary:
 
thos ta 2sg.pres.descr.vb., you are (to one person).
nag os ta 2sg.pres.descr.vb., you aren’t (to one person).
os 2sg.pres.descr.vb., you are (to one person when answering).
wherow adj., bitter.
isel adj., low.
terry vbn., break/-ing.
neyja vbn., fly/-ing, swim/-ming.
ayr m., air.
rei vbn., give/giving.
pònya vbn., run/running.
gow m., lie.
leverel gow phr., telling a lie.
gwag adj., empty, hungry.


   
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys Patterns introduced:

   
Positive statement:

          Neutral:
          Thos ta whei ... . “You(sg.) are (adjective).”

                        E.g.:
                        Thos ta bian. “You’re(sg.) small.”

          Adjective stressed:
          ... os ta. “You(sg.) are (adjective).”

                        E.g.:
                        Bian os ta. “You’re(sg.) small.”

          Pronoun stressed:
          Chy ew ... .You(sg.) are small.”

                        E.g.:
                        Whei ew bian. “You(sg.) are small.”


Question:
Os ta ...? “Are you(sg.) (adjective)?”

                        E.g.:
                  Os ta bian? “Are you(sg.) small?”


Negative statement:
Nag os ta ... . “You(sg.) aren’t (adjective).”

                        E.g.:
                  Nag os ta bian. “You(sg.) aren’t small.”


Saying “yes”:
Ea, os. “Yes, you(sg.) are.”

Saying “no”:
Nâ, nag os. “No, you(sg.) aren’t."

Descans Pemp warn Ügens  
-
Lesson Twenty Five


Gerva Vocabulary:
 
piw interrog.prn., who.
pe le phr., where.
pe interrog.prn., which.
eus? 3sg.vb., is there?.
nag eus 3sg.vb., there isn’t, there’s no.
dhebm 1sg.prp.prn., to me.
    
   
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys Patterns introduced:

Have/having:
Positive statement:
Ma neppeth dhe ... . “There-is something to ... .”

                    E.g.:
               Ma lever dhewgh. “You have got a book.”
                    (lit.: There-is book to-you.)

               Ma lever dhebm. “I have got a book.”
                    (lit.: There-is book to-me.)

Question:
Eus neppeth dhe ... ? “Is-there something to ... ?”

                    E.g.:    
               Eus lever dhewgh? “Have you got a book?”
                    (lit.: Is-there book to-you?)

                    Eus lever dhebm? “Have I got a book?”
                    (lit.: Is-there book to-me?)

Negative statement:
Nag eus tra veth dhe ... . “There-isn’t anything to ... .”

                    E.g.:    
               Nag eus lever dhewgh. “You haven’t got a book.”
                    (lit.: Not is-there book to-you.)

                  Nag eus lever dhebm. “I haven’t got a book.”
                    (lit.: Not is-there book to-me.)
    

Descans Whegh warn Ügens  
-
Lesson Twenty Six


Gerva Vocabulary:

gerowgh imp., of gara, let!.
gerowgh nei (dhe) (+ vbn.) phr., let us; let’s.
en mes, mes adv., outside; out.
a jei, jei, chei adv., inside; in the house; home.
lowarth m., garden.
nebònan prn., someone; somebody.
den veth prn., anyone; anybody.
dhodho prp.prn., to him; to it.
a vadn adv., (position) upstairs; above.
a wòles adv., (position) downstairs; below.
e’n gwir en ta, e’n gwir et ta phr., in fact; as a matter
                                               of fact; really; right enough.
    
    
   
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys Patterns introduced:

How to express “let’s!”:
Gerowgh + (pronoun) + (verb)! “Let (pronoun) (verb)!”
or:
Gerowgh + (pronoun) + dhe(S) (s)(verb)! “Let (pronoun) (verb)!”
 
                    E.g.:
                    Gerowgh nei desky Kernôwek! “Let’s learn Cornish!”
                          or:
                    Gerowgh nei dhe dhesky Kernôwek! “Let’s learn Cornish!”
 
 
Have/having:
Positive statement:
Ma neppeth dhe ... . “There-is something to ... .”
 
                    E.g.:
                    Ma lever dhodho. “He has got a book.”
                    (lit.: There-is book to-him.)
 
Question:
Eus neppeth dhe ... ? “Is-there something to ... ?”
 
                    E.g.:    
                    Eus lever dhodho? “Has he got a book?”
                    (lit.: Is-there book to-him?)
 
Negative statement:
Nag eus tra veth dhe ... . “There-isn’t anything to ... .”
 
                     E.g.:    
                     Nag eus lever dhodho. “He hasn’t got a book.”
                     (lit.: Not is-there book to-him.)
    

Descans Seyth warn Ügens  
-
Lesson Twenty Seven


Gerva Vocabulary:
  
bera dhe (S) prp., in; inside.
ken adj., else; another.
nebònan ken phr., somebody else; someone  
                           else; anybody else; anyone else.
dhedhy prp.prn., to her; to it.
ros f., wheel.
diwros f., bicycle; bike.
teyrros f., tricycle; trike.
peder num.f., four.
lies adj. (with sg.n.), many.
pe lies? phr. (with sg.n.), how many?.
bes cnj., but; except. (with neg.) only; just.
our m., hour.
dedh m., day.
p’ehen a phr., what kind of; what sort of.
badna m., drop; a drop to drink.
   
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys Patterns introduced:

Have/having:
Positive statement:
Ma neppeth dhe ... . “There-is something to ... .”
 
                     E.g.:
                     Ma lever dhedhy. “She has got a book.”
                     (lit.: There-is book to-her.)
 
 
Question:
Eus neppeth dhe ... ? “Is-there something to ... ?”
 
                    E.g.:    
                    Eus lever dhedhy? “Has she got a book?”
                    (lit.: Is-there book to-her?)
 
 
Negative statement:
Nag eus tra veth dhe ... . “There-isn’t anything to ... .”
 
                    E.g.:    
                    Nag eus lever dhedhy. “She hasn’t got a book.”
                    (lit.: Not is-there book to-her.)
 
 
Numbers:
“Three”:
trei “three” + (masculine/singular) noun
            -) causes breathed mutation.
            -) used before masculine, singular nouns.
 
teyr “three” + (feminine/singular) noun
            -) causes breathed mutation.
            -) used before feminine, singular nouns.
 
            E.g.:
            Trei hei. “Three dogs.”
            Teyr hath. “Three cats.”
 
 
“Four”:
pajar “four” + (masculine/singular) noun
            -) used before masculine, singular nouns.
 
peder “three” + (feminine/singular) noun
            -) used before feminine, singular nouns.
 
            E.g.:
            Pajar kei. “Four dogs.”
            Peder cath. “Four cats.”
 
 
Saying “many”:
lies + (singular noun)
            E.g.:
            Lies carr. “Many cars.”
 
“Will”, “want” and “have”:
(pronoun) + a(S) + (s)vedn + (verbal noun) + ... . “(pronoun) + will/want + (to verb) + ... .
 
           E.g.:
           Whei a vedn desky Kernôwek. “You will learn Cornish.”
                                                          or: “You want to learn Cornish.”
 
        Me a vedn cawas neppeth. “I will have something.”
                                                          or: “I want to get something.”

   
Descansow Eth warn Ügens ha naw warn Ügens  
-
    Lessons Twenty Eight and Twenty Nine


Gerva Vocabulary:
 
della, endella adv., so; in this way.
vadnam?, vaddam? phr., will I?; do I want to?.
vedno whei?, veddo whei? phr., will you?; do you want to?.
na vadnam, na vaddam phr., I won’t?; I don’t want to.
na vedno whei?, na veddo whei? phr., won’t you?; don’t
                                                                                  you want to?.
lôwarth m., garden.
òrt prp., at; to.
òrtam prp.prn., at me; to me.
òrta vy prp.prn. (stressed), at me; to me.
    

   
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys Patterns introduced:

“Will/want to”:
Positive statement: 
My a vedn desky Kernôwek. “I will learn Cornish.”
Whei a vedn desky Kernôwek. “You will learn Cornish.”
 
Questions:
Vadna vy desky Kernôwek? “Will I learn Cornish?”
Vedno whei desky Kernôwek? “Will you learn Cornish?”
 
Negative Question:
Na vadna vy desky Kernôwek? “Will I not learn Cornish?”
Na vedno whei desky Kernôwek? “Will you not learn Cornish?”
 
Negative Statement:
Na vadna vy desky Kernôwek. “I won’t learn Cornish?”
Na vedno whei desky Kernôwek. “You won’t learn Cornish?”
 
Prepositional pronouns:
Unstressed                                         Stressed
òrtam “at me”                                  òrta vy “at me”

      
Descans Deg warn Ügens
-
        Lesson Thirty


Gerva Vocabulary:
 
coffy m., coffee.
chy a ell phr., you(one familiar person) can; thou canst.
drog adj., bad.
ea, gellam phr., yes, I can.
ello whei? phr., can you?.
ev a ell phr., he can.
flyrtya vbn., flirt/-ing.
hei a ell phr., she can.
jei a ell phr., they can.
mires òrt vbn., to watch; look at.
mires vbn., look.
my a ell phr., I can.
na ellam, na ellama phr., I can’t.
na ello whei phr., you cannot, you can’t.
Nâ, na ellowgh phr., no, you can’t.
nei a ell phr., we can.
òrtho whei 2pl.prp.prn., at you (stressed), (with gosôwes,
                                  mires) to you (stressed).
òrthowgh 2pl.prp.prn., at you, (with gosôwes, mires) to you.
pellwolok f., television.
whei a ell phr., you can.
   
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys Patterns introduced:

Prepositional pronouns:
    Unstressed                                             Stressed
     orthowgh “at you”                           ortho whei “at you”

Preferring:
gwell + ew + gen “I prefer”
(lit.: better + is + with)

            E.g.:
            Thew te gwell genam. “I prefer tea.”
            Gwell ew genam te. “I prefer tea.”
            Te ew gwell genam. “I prefer tea.”
            Gena vy gwell ew te.I prefer tea.”

      
Descans Üdnek warn Ügens
-
        Lesson Thirty One


Gerva Vocabulary:
 
   
(X) an (Y) phr., the (X) of the (Y), the (Y)'s (X).
a (S) prp., of, from.
chy a ell phr., you (sg.) can, thou canst.
daras m., door.
degea (degeas, kea, keas) vbn., close/ing.
ea, gellam phr., yes, I can.
egery vbn., to open, opening.
ello whei? phr., can you?.
ev a ell phr., he can.
gallòs vbn., can, to be able.
hei a ell phr., she can.
jei a ell, anjei a ell phr., you can.
mar pleg phr., please.
my a ell phr., I can.
na ellam, na ellama phr., I can't.
na ello whei phr., you can't.
Nâ, na ellam phr., no, I can’t.
Nâ, na ellowgh phr., no, you can’t.
nei a ell phr., we can.
predery a phr., to think about, to think of.
predery vbn., to think, thinking, to consider, considering.
saya (assaya) vbn., to try, trying, to attempt, attempting.
scol f., school.
whei a ell phr., you can.
    
   
Patrons Lavarow a veu presentys Patterns introduced:

   
Positive Statement:
My a ell desky Kernôwek. “I can learn Cornish.”
Chy a ell desky Kernôwek. “You (sg.) can learn Cornish.”
Ev a ell desky Kernôwek. “He can learn Cornish.”
Hei a ell desky Kernôwek. “She can learn Cornish.”
Nei a ell desky Kernôwek. “We can learn Cornish.”
Whei a ell desky Kernôwek. “You can learn Cornish.”
Jei a ell desky Kernôwek. “They can learn Cornish.”
 
Question:
Ellam desky Kernôwek?/Ella vy desky Kernôwek? “Can I learn Cornish?”
Ellowgh desky Kernôwek?/Ello whei desky Kernôwek? “Can you learn Cornish?”
 
Negative Statement:
Na ellam desky Kernôwek?/Na ella vy desky Kernôwek? “I cannot learn Cornish?”
Na ellowgh desky Kernôwek?/Na ello whei desky Kernôwek? “You cannot learn Cornish?”